Wednesday 20.09.2017

Austria

Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.

Geography

Landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E
Area: total: 83,871 sq km land: 82,445 sq km water: 1,426 sq km 

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Maine
Land Boundaries: total: 2,562 km border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Natural resources: oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 16.59% permanent crops: 0.85% other: 82.56% (2005)
Irrigated land: 1,170 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

People

Population: 8,221,646 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 13.7% (male 577,390/female 550,496) 15-24 years: 11.8% (male 494,324/female 474,171) 25-54 years: 43.1% (male 1,779,534/female 1,766,779) 55-64 years: 12.5% (male 506,419/female 520,552) 65 years and over: 18.9% (male 656,883/female 895,098) (2013 est.) population pyramid:
Median age: total: 43.4 years male: 42.3 years female: 44.5 years (2012 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.026% (2012 est.)
Birth rate: 8.69 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Death rate: 10.23 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Net migration rate: 1.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.26 deaths/1,000 live births male: 5.16 deaths/1,000 live births female: 3.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.91 years male: 77 years female: 82.97 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.42 children born/woman (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 15,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Nationality: noun: Austrian(s) adjective: Austrian
Ethnic groups: Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, German 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 2%, none 12% (2001 census)
Languages: German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 census)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: NA female: NA

Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Austria conventional short form: Austria local long form: Republik Oesterreich local short form: Oesterreich
Government type: federal republic
Capital: name: Vienna geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Karnten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)
Independence: 12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed)
National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the passage of the law on permanent neutrality
Constitution: 1 October 1920; revised 1929; reinstated 1 May 1945; revised many times; note - during the period 1 May 1934-1 May 1945 there was a fascist (corporative) constitution in place
Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court
Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal; note - reduced from 18 years of age in 2007
Executive branch: chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) (since 8 July 2004) head of government: Chancellor Werner FAYMANN (SPOe) (since 2 December 2008); Vice Chancellor Michael SPINDELEGGER (OeVP) (since 21 April 2011) cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected for a six-year term (eligible for a second term) by direct popular vote and formally sworn into office before the Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung; presidential election last held on 25 April 2010 (next to be held on 25 April 2016); chancellor formally chosen by the president but determined by the coalition parties forming a parliamentary majority; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor election results: Heinz FISCHER reelected president; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER 79.33%, Barbara ROSENKRANZ 15.24%, Rudolf GEHRING 5.43% note: government coalition - SPOe and OeVP
Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 seats; delegates appointed by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 seats in proportion to its population; members serve five- or six-year terms) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by popular vote for a five-year term under a system of proportional representation with partially-open party lists) elections: National Council - last held on 28 September 2008 (next to be held by September 2013) election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe 29.3%, OeVP 26%, FPOe 17.5%, BZOe 10.7%, Greens 10.4%, other 6.1%; seats by party - SPOe 57, OeVP 51, FPOe 34, BZOe 21, Greens 20; note - seats by party since 2012 - SPOe 56, OeVP 51, FPOe 37, BZOe 13, Greens 20, Stronach 5
Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for the Future of Austria or BZOe [Josef BUCHER]; Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Michael SPINDELEGGER]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Werner FAYMANN]; The Greens [Eva GLAWISCHNIG]; Communist Party of Austria or KPOe [Mirko MESSNER]; "Team Stronach for Austria" [Frank STRONACH]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Austrian Trade Union Federation or OeGB (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic); Federal Economic Chamber; Labor Chamber or AK (Social Democratic-leaning think tank); OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action other: three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, farmers, and other nongovernment organizations in the areas of environment and human rights
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hans Peter MANZ chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035 telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700 FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador William C. EACHO III embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0 FAX: [43] (1) 3100682

Economy

Austria, with its well-developed market economy, skilled labor force, and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Its economy features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector. Following several years of solid foreign demand for Austrian exports and record employment growth, the international financial crisis of 2008 and subsequent global economic downturn led to a sharp but brief recession. Austrian GDP contracted 3.8% in 2009 but saw positive growth of about 2% in 2010 and 2.7% in 2011. Growth fell to 0.6% in 2012. Unemployment did not rise as steeply in Austria as elsewhere in Europe, partly because the government subsidized reduced working hour schemes to allow companies to retain employees. The 2012 unemployment rate of 4.3% was the lowest within the EU. Stabilization measures, stimulus spending, and an income tax reform pushed the budget deficit to 4.5% in 2010 and 2.6% in 2011, from only about 0.9% in 2008. The international financial crisis of 2008 caused difficulties for Austria's largest banks whose extensive operations in central, eastern, and southeastern Europe faced large losses. The government provided bank support - including in some instances, nationalization - to support aggregate demand and stabilize the banking system. Austria's fiscal position compares favorably with other euro-zone countries, but it faces external risks, such as Austrian banks' continued exposure to Central and Eastern Europe as well as political and economic uncertainties caused by the European sovereign debt crisis. In 2011 the government attempted to pass a constitutional amendment limiting public debt to 60% of GDP by 2020, but it was unable to obtain sufficient support in parliament and instead passed the measure as a simple law. In March 2012, the Austrian parliament approved an austerity package consisting of a mix of expenditure cuts and new revenues that will bring public finances into balance by 2016. In 2012, the budget deficit rose to 2.9% of GDP.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $357.8 billion (2012 est.) $355.6 billion (2011 est.) $346.3 billion (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $395.5 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.6% (2012 est.) 2.7% (2011 est.) 2.1% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $42,500 (2012 est.) $42,200 (2011 est.) $41,300 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1.5% industry: 29.4% services: 69.1% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 4.434 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 5.5% industry: 26% services: 68.5% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.3% (2012 est.) 4.2% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 6.2% (2012)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4% highest 10%: 22% (2011)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 26.3 (2007) 31 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (2012 est.) 3.5% (2011 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): Investment (gross fixed): 22% of GDP (2012 est.)
Budget: revenues: $191.7 billion expenditures: $204.1 billion (2012 est.)
Public debt: 74.6% of GDP (2012 est.) 72.4% of GDP (2011 est.) note: this is general government gross debt, defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year; it covers the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; as a percentage of GDP, the GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product in current year prices
Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber
Industries: construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 7.5% (2011 est.)
Electricity - production: 69 billion kWh (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 41
Electricity - consumption: 63.8 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - exports: 16.75 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - imports: 24.98 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Natural gas - production: 1.6 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 9.27 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 4.96 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 14.28 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 23.9 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
Current account balance: $8.09 billion (2012 est.) $7.242 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $163.1 billion (2012 est.) $173.6 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs
Exports - partners: Germany 32.3%, Italy 7.8%, Switzerland 4.4%, France 4.2% (2011)
Imports: $170.5 billion (2012 est.) $183.3 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Germany 42.8%, Italy 6.8%, Switzerland 5.5%, Netherlands 4% (2011)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $26.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $27.07 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $883.5 billion (30 June 2011) $755 billion (30 June 2010)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $151.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $164.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $204.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $213.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $100.4 billion (31 December 2012) $88.6 billion (31 December 2011) $120.7 billion (31 December 2010)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7838 (2012 est.) 0.7185 (2011 est.) 0.755 (2010 est.) 0.7198 (2009 est.) 0.6827 (2008 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones in use: 3.388 million (2011) country comparison to the world: 48
Cellular Phones in use: 13.023 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: highly developed and efficient domestic: fixed-line subscribership has been in decline since the mid-1990s with mobile-cellular subscribership eclipsing it by the late 1990s; the fiber-optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 15; in addition, there are about 600 VSATs (very small aperture terminals) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
Television broadcast stations:
Internet country code: .at
Internet hosts: 3.512 million (2012)
Internet users: 6.143 million (2009)

Transportation

Airports: 52 (2012) country comparison to the world: 90
Airports (paved runways): total: 24 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 13 (2012)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 28 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 24 (2012)
Heliports: 1 (2012)
Pipelines: gas 3,028 km; oil 663 km; refined products 157 km (2010)
Railways: total: 6,399 km standard gauge: 5,927 km 1.435-m gauge (3,853 km electrified) narrow gauge: 384 km 1.000-m gauge (15 km electrified); 88 km 0.760-m gauge (10 km electrified) (2008)
Roadways: total: 124,508 km paved: 124,508 km (includes 1,719 km of expressways) (2012)
Waterways: 358 km (2011)
Merchant marine: registered in other countries: 3 (Cyprus 1, Kazakhstan 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna

Military

Military branches: Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)
Military service age and obligation: registration requirement at age 17; males under the age of 35 must complete basic military training (6 month duration); males 17 to 50 years old in the militia or inactive reserve are subject to compulsory military service (2011)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,941,110 females age 16-49: 1,910,434 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,579,862 females age 16-49: 1,554,130 (2010 est.)